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January/February 2014
Volume 14, Issue #1

COVER STORY

Written by:
Joseph V. Pergolizzi, Jr., MD
Robert B. Raffa, PhD

Editor’s Note:The World Health Organization (WHO) Pain Ladder has been an enduring guide for over 25 years. Its simple, progressive steps of 1) anti-inflammatory agents, 2) weak opioids, and 3) strong opioids is still fundamentally sound. In this article, Pergolizzi and Raffa present a thoughtful and detailed set of recommendations to modify the 3-step process.

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